Ah, weasel words.
People often use weasel-speak in business to create the impression that they have said something important, meaningful and to the point when, in fact, their claims are ambiguous, their assertions little more than assumptions, and their statements vague and misleading.
When you hear weasel-speak, don’t you just want to raise your eyebrows in alarm and mutter What sesquipedalian tergiversation!
Here are a few common weasel phrases as examples:
Studies show …
The vast majority …
People say …
Critics claim …
There is evidence that …
Experience shows …
If you use such phrases, you can avoid weaseldom in one of two ways:
- Substitute the exact figures, names or details in place of the weasel phrase in the body of the text.
- Use footnotes or appendices in which you give exact figures, details, names, places, and so on.
Notice that the key idea in both suggestions is the same: Prefer language that is concrete, factual, specific and detailed. Substantiate all claims. Provide supporting evidence for all assertions. Avoid the clutter of bureaucratic phrases. Simpler language almost always communicates better.
You can also use what is known as the “general-concrete” pattern. In this method of writing, general and abstract statements are followed by a concrete case. Use specific examples, illustrations and detailed explanations to get your exact point across to your readers. Don’t just present concepts and sweeping generalities. Clarify each one with a concrete case, specific figures, or detailed examples to convey what you mean and help prevent weasel-speak from creeping into your writing.
Now let’s take the example weasel phrases above and remove the smoke screens. The following examples banish the empty weasel words and restore substance and specificity:
Two studies, the 2003 Hirt Report on Nicotine Use and the 2007 CDC Mortality Rates Report, show …
89 percent of respondents said …
People we interviewed agreed that …. Here is a list of their names and departments …
The movie critics of the following newspapers claim … (provide the names of the papers and critics)
The 26 supporting studies we cite in the appendix offer evidence that …
Based on the self-reported experience of the following 10 people … (give their names, describe each person’s experience in detail, and how each person’s experience supports your point)
Oh, it’s so easy, isn’t it? A little weasel here, another slithery weasel there, and before you know it, clear, substantive speech can find itself on the slippery slope to puffery, devoid of all real content.
To help you maintain sense and meaning in your writing, here is a list of handy resources I think you will enjoy:
- CSU – Jargon, Weasel Words and Gobbledygook
- WSU – The Power of Words
- Changing Minds – Weasel Words
- Weasel Words
- Edgalaxy – Weasel Words
- Say Uncle – How Business People Air Their Grievances
- Tony Goodson – Weasel Words
- 37 Signals – Corporate Speak
- Flickr – Weasel-Speak Ad
Now it’s your turn: What weasel phrases do you dislike the most? How do you avoid using weasel words? Please share your thoughts in the comments – thanks! Elizabeth Lexleigh LexPower The Write Ideas